Browse Source

Jetzt mit LAN Buzzer

Die Software macht auf Port 30000 eine Webseite auf, 
auf der Links zu den 4 Spielern sind.
Klickt man auf dem 'Press' Button, kann man den Buzzer auslösen.
Dabei wird die Public IP-V4 Adresse verwendet, wenn man Zugriff aufs Netz hat.

So sind auch Spiele in einer Videokonfenz möglich.
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kresse 4 months ago
parent
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      hacKNerdy.py
  3. +24
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      my_local_ip.py
  4. +20
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Bottle is a fast and simple micro-framework for small web applications. It
offers request dispatching (Routes) with URL parameter support, templates,
a built-in HTTP Server and adapters for many third party WSGI/HTTP-server and
template engines - all in a single file and with no dependencies other than the
Python Standard Library.
Homepage and documentation: http://bottlepy.org/
Copyright (c) 2009-2018, Marcel Hellkamp.
License: MIT (see LICENSE for details)
"""
import sys
__author__ = 'Marcel Hellkamp'
__version__ = '0.13-dev'
__license__ = 'MIT'
###############################################################################
# Command-line interface ######################################################
###############################################################################
# INFO: Some server adapters need to monkey-patch std-lib modules before they
# are imported. This is why some of the command-line handling is done here, but
# the actual call to _main() is at the end of the file.
def _cli_parse(args): # pragma: no coverage
from argparse import ArgumentParser
parser = ArgumentParser(prog=args[0], usage="%(prog)s [options] package.module:app")
opt = parser.add_argument
opt("--version", action="store_true", help="show version number.")
opt("-b", "--bind", metavar="ADDRESS", help="bind socket to ADDRESS.")
opt("-s", "--server", default='wsgiref', help="use SERVER as backend.")
opt("-p", "--plugin", action="append", help="install additional plugin/s.")
opt("-c", "--conf", action="append", metavar="FILE",
help="load config values from FILE.")
opt("-C", "--param", action="append", metavar="NAME=VALUE",
help="override config values.")
opt("--debug", action="store_true", help="start server in debug mode.")
opt("--reload", action="store_true", help="auto-reload on file changes.")
opt('app', help='WSGI app entry point.', nargs='?')
cli_args = parser.parse_args(args[1:])
return cli_args, parser
def _cli_patch(cli_args): # pragma: no coverage
parsed_args, _ = _cli_parse(cli_args)
opts = parsed_args
if opts.server:
if opts.server.startswith('gevent'):
import gevent.monkey
gevent.monkey.patch_all()
elif opts.server.startswith('eventlet'):
import eventlet
eventlet.monkey_patch()
if __name__ == '__main__':
_cli_patch(sys.argv)
###############################################################################
# Imports and Python 2/3 unification ##########################################
###############################################################################
import base64, calendar, cgi, email.utils, functools, hmac, imp, itertools,\
mimetypes, os, re, tempfile, threading, time, warnings, weakref, hashlib
from types import FunctionType
from datetime import date as datedate, datetime, timedelta
from tempfile import TemporaryFile
from traceback import format_exc, print_exc
from unicodedata import normalize
try:
from ujson import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
except ImportError:
from json import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
# inspect.getargspec was removed in Python 3.6, use
# Signature-based version where we can (Python 3.3+)
try:
from inspect import signature
def getargspec(func):
params = signature(func).parameters
args, varargs, keywords, defaults = [], None, None, []
for name, param in params.items():
if param.kind == param.VAR_POSITIONAL:
varargs = name
elif param.kind == param.VAR_KEYWORD:
keywords = name
else:
args.append(name)
if param.default is not param.empty:
defaults.append(param.default)
return (args, varargs, keywords, tuple(defaults) or None)
except ImportError:
try:
from inspect import getfullargspec
def getargspec(func):
spec = getfullargspec(func)
kwargs = makelist(spec[0]) + makelist(spec.kwonlyargs)
return kwargs, spec[1], spec[2], spec[3]
except ImportError:
from inspect import getargspec
py = sys.version_info
py3k = py.major > 2
# Workaround for the "print is a keyword/function" Python 2/3 dilemma
# and a fallback for mod_wsgi (resticts stdout/err attribute access)
try:
_stdout, _stderr = sys.stdout.write, sys.stderr.write
except IOError:
_stdout = lambda x: sys.stdout.write(x)
_stderr = lambda x: sys.stderr.write(x)
# Lots of stdlib and builtin differences.
if py3k:
import http.client as httplib
import _thread as thread
from urllib.parse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
from urllib.parse import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
urlunquote = functools.partial(urlunquote, encoding='latin1')
from http.cookies import SimpleCookie, Morsel, CookieError
from collections.abc import MutableMapping as DictMixin
import pickle
from io import BytesIO
import configparser
basestring = str
unicode = str
json_loads = lambda s: json_lds(touni(s))
callable = lambda x: hasattr(x, '__call__')
imap = map
def _raise(*a):
raise a[0](a[1]).with_traceback(a[2])
else: # 2.x
import httplib
import thread
from urlparse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
from urllib import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
from Cookie import SimpleCookie, Morsel, CookieError
from itertools import imap
import cPickle as pickle
from StringIO import StringIO as BytesIO
import ConfigParser as configparser
from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
unicode = unicode
json_loads = json_lds
exec(compile('def _raise(*a): raise a[0], a[1], a[2]', '<py3fix>', 'exec'))
# Some helpers for string/byte handling
def tob(s, enc='utf8'):
if isinstance(s, unicode):
return s.encode(enc)
return b'' if s is None else bytes(s)
def touni(s, enc='utf8', err='strict'):
if isinstance(s, bytes):
return s.decode(enc, err)
return unicode("" if s is None else s)
tonat = touni if py3k else tob
# A bug in functools causes it to break if the wrapper is an instance method
def update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka):
try:
functools.update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka)
except AttributeError:
pass
# These helpers are used at module level and need to be defined first.
# And yes, I know PEP-8, but sometimes a lower-case classname makes more sense.
def depr(major, minor, cause, fix):
text = "Warning: Use of deprecated feature or API. (Deprecated in Bottle-%d.%d)\n"\
"Cause: %s\n"\
"Fix: %s\n" % (major, minor, cause, fix)
if DEBUG == 'strict':
raise DeprecationWarning(text)
warnings.warn(text, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=3)
return DeprecationWarning(text)
def makelist(data): # This is just too handy
if isinstance(data, (tuple, list, set, dict)):
return list(data)
elif data:
return [data]
else:
return []
class DictProperty(object):
""" Property that maps to a key in a local dict-like attribute. """
def __init__(self, attr, key=None, read_only=False):
self.attr, self.key, self.read_only = attr, key, read_only
def __call__(self, func):
functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
self.getter, self.key = func, self.key or func.__name__
return self
def __get__(self, obj, cls):
if obj is None: return self
key, storage = self.key, getattr(obj, self.attr)
if key not in storage: storage[key] = self.getter(obj)
return storage[key]
def __set__(self, obj, value):
if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key] = value
def __delete__(self, obj):
if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
del getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key]
class cached_property(object):
""" A property that is only computed once per instance and then replaces
itself with an ordinary attribute. Deleting the attribute resets the
property. """
def __init__(self, func):
update_wrapper(self, func)
self.func = func
def __get__(self, obj, cls):
if obj is None: return self
value = obj.__dict__[self.func.__name__] = self.func(obj)
return value
class lazy_attribute(object):
""" A property that caches itself to the class object. """
def __init__(self, func):
functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
self.getter = func
def __get__(self, obj, cls):
value = self.getter(cls)
setattr(cls, self.__name__, value)
return value
###############################################################################
# Exceptions and Events #######################################################
###############################################################################
class BottleException(Exception):
""" A base class for exceptions used by bottle. """
pass
###############################################################################
# Routing ######################################################################
###############################################################################
class RouteError(BottleException):
""" This is a base class for all routing related exceptions """
class RouteReset(BottleException):
""" If raised by a plugin or request handler, the route is reset and all
plugins are re-applied. """
class RouterUnknownModeError(RouteError):
pass
class RouteSyntaxError(RouteError):
""" The route parser found something not supported by this router. """
class RouteBuildError(RouteError):
""" The route could not be built. """
def _re_flatten(p):
""" Turn all capturing groups in a regular expression pattern into
non-capturing groups. """
if '(' not in p:
return p
return re.sub(r'(\\*)(\(\?P<[^>]+>|\((?!\?))', lambda m: m.group(0) if
len(m.group(1)) % 2 else m.group(1) + '(?:', p)
class Router(object):
""" A Router is an ordered collection of route->target pairs. It is used to
efficiently match WSGI requests against a number of routes and return
the first target that satisfies the request. The target may be anything,
usually a string, ID or callable object. A route consists of a path-rule
and a HTTP method.
The path-rule is either a static path (e.g. `/contact`) or a dynamic
path that contains wildcards (e.g. `/wiki/<page>`). The wildcard syntax
and details on the matching order are described in docs:`routing`.
"""
default_pattern = '[^/]+'
default_filter = 're'
#: The current CPython regexp implementation does not allow more
#: than 99 matching groups per regular expression.
_MAX_GROUPS_PER_PATTERN = 99
def __init__(self, strict=False):
self.rules = [] # All rules in order
self._groups = {} # index of regexes to find them in dyna_routes
self.builder = {} # Data structure for the url builder
self.static = {} # Search structure for static routes
self.dyna_routes = {}
self.dyna_regexes = {} # Search structure for dynamic routes
#: If true, static routes are no longer checked first.
self.strict_order = strict
self.filters = {
're': lambda conf: (_re_flatten(conf or self.default_pattern),
None, None),
'int': lambda conf: (r'-?\d+', int, lambda x: str(int(x))),
'float': lambda conf: (r'-?[\d.]+', float, lambda x: str(float(x))),
'path': lambda conf: (r'.+?', None, None)
}
def add_filter(self, name, func):
""" Add a filter. The provided function is called with the configuration
string as parameter and must return a (regexp, to_python, to_url) tuple.
The first element is a string, the last two are callables or None. """
self.filters[name] = func
rule_syntax = re.compile('(\\\\*)'
'(?:(?::([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?()(?:#(.*?)#)?)'
'|(?:<([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?(?::([a-zA-Z_]*)'
'(?::((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\>])+)?)?)?>))')
def _itertokens(self, rule):
offset, prefix = 0, ''
for match in self.rule_syntax.finditer(rule):
prefix += rule[offset:match.start()]
g = match.groups()
if g[2] is not None:
depr(0, 13, "Use of old route syntax.",
"Use <name> instead of :name in routes.")
if len(g[0]) % 2: # Escaped wildcard
prefix += match.group(0)[len(g[0]):]
offset = match.end()
continue
if prefix:
yield prefix, None, None
name, filtr, conf = g[4:7] if g[2] is None else g[1:4]
yield name, filtr or 'default', conf or None
offset, prefix = match.end(), ''
if offset <= len(rule) or prefix:
yield prefix + rule[offset:], None, None
def add(self, rule, method, target, name=None):
""" Add a new rule or replace the target for an existing rule. """
anons = 0 # Number of anonymous wildcards found
keys = [] # Names of keys
pattern = '' # Regular expression pattern with named groups
filters = [] # Lists of wildcard input filters
builder = [] # Data structure for the URL builder
is_static = True
for key, mode, conf in self._itertokens(rule):
if mode:
is_static = False
if mode == 'default': mode = self.default_filter
mask, in_filter, out_filter = self.filters[mode](conf)
if not key:
pattern += '(?:%s)' % mask
key = 'anon%d' % anons
anons += 1
else:
pattern += '(?P<%s>%s)' % (key, mask)
keys.append(key)
if in_filter: filters.append((key, in_filter))
builder.append((key, out_filter or str))
elif key:
pattern += re.escape(key)
builder.append((None, key))
self.builder[rule] = builder
if name: self.builder[name] = builder
if is_static and not self.strict_order:
self.static.setdefault(method, {})
self.static[method][self.build(rule)] = (target, None)
return
try:
re_pattern = re.compile('^(%s)$' % pattern)
re_match = re_pattern.match
except re.error as e:
raise RouteSyntaxError("Could not add Route: %s (%s)" % (rule, e))
if filters:
def getargs(path):
url_args = re_match(path).groupdict()
for name, wildcard_filter in filters:
try:
url_args[name] = wildcard_filter(url_args[name])
except ValueError:
raise HTTPError(400, 'Path has wrong format.')
return url_args
elif re_pattern.groupindex:
def getargs(path):
return re_match(path).groupdict()
else:
getargs = None
flatpat = _re_flatten(pattern)
whole_rule = (rule, flatpat, target, getargs)
if (flatpat, method) in self._groups:
if DEBUG:
msg = 'Route <%s %s> overwrites a previously defined route'
warnings.warn(msg % (method, rule), RuntimeWarning)
self.dyna_routes[method][
self._groups[flatpat, method]] = whole_rule
else:
self.dyna_routes.setdefault(method, []).append(whole_rule)
self._groups[flatpat, method] = len(self.dyna_routes[method]) - 1
self._compile(method)
def _compile(self, method):
all_rules = self.dyna_routes[method]
comborules = self.dyna_regexes[method] = []
maxgroups = self._MAX_GROUPS_PER_PATTERN
for x in range(0, len(all_rules), maxgroups):
some = all_rules[x:x + maxgroups]
combined = (flatpat for (_, flatpat, _, _) in some)
combined = '|'.join('(^%s$)' % flatpat for flatpat in combined)
combined = re.compile(combined).match
rules = [(target, getargs) for (_, _, target, getargs) in some]
comborules.append((combined, rules))
def build(self, _name, *anons, **query):
""" Build an URL by filling the wildcards in a rule. """
builder = self.builder.get(_name)
if not builder:
raise RouteBuildError("No route with that name.", _name)
try:
for i, value in enumerate(anons):
query['anon%d' % i] = value
url = ''.join([f(query.pop(n)) if n else f for (n, f) in builder])
return url if not query else url + '?' + urlencode(query)
except KeyError as E:
raise RouteBuildError('Missing URL argument: %r' % E.args[0])
def match(self, environ):
""" Return a (target, url_args) tuple or raise HTTPError(400/404/405). """
verb = environ['REQUEST_METHOD'].upper()
path = environ['PATH_INFO'] or '/'
if verb == 'HEAD':
methods = ['PROXY', verb, 'GET', 'ANY']
else:
methods = ['PROXY', verb, 'ANY']
for method in methods:
if method in self.static and path in self.static[method]:
target, getargs = self.static[method][path]
return target, getargs(path) if getargs else {}
elif method in self.dyna_regexes:
for combined, rules in self.dyna_regexes[method]:
match = combined(path)
if match:
target, getargs = rules[match.lastindex - 1]
return target, getargs(path) if getargs else {}
# No matching route found. Collect alternative methods for 405 response
allowed = set([])
nocheck = set(methods)
for method in set(self.static) - nocheck:
if path in self.static[method]:
allowed.add(method)
for method in set(self.dyna_regexes) - allowed - nocheck:
for combined, rules in self.dyna_regexes[method]:
match = combined(path)
if match:
allowed.add(method)
if allowed:
allow_header = ",".join(sorted(allowed))
raise HTTPError(405, "Method not allowed.", Allow=allow_header)
# No matching route and no alternative method found. We give up
raise HTTPError(404, "Not found: " + repr(path))
class Route(object):
""" This class wraps a route callback along with route specific metadata and
configuration and applies Plugins on demand. It is also responsible for
turning an URL path rule into a regular expression usable by the Router.
"""
def __init__(self, app, rule, method, callback,
name=None,
plugins=None,
skiplist=None, **config):
#: The application this route is installed to.
self.app = app
#: The path-rule string (e.g. ``/wiki/<page>``).
self.rule = rule
#: The HTTP method as a string (e.g. ``GET``).
self.method = method
#: The original callback with no plugins applied. Useful for introspection.
self.callback = callback
#: The name of the route (if specified) or ``None``.
self.name = name or None
#: A list of route-specific plugins (see :meth:`Bottle.route`).
self.plugins = plugins or []
#: A list of plugins to not apply to this route (see :meth:`Bottle.route`).
self.skiplist = skiplist or []
#: Additional keyword arguments passed to the :meth:`Bottle.route`
#: decorator are stored in this dictionary. Used for route-specific
#: plugin configuration and meta-data.
self.config = app.config._make_overlay()
self.config.load_dict(config)
@cached_property
def call(self):
""" The route callback with all plugins applied. This property is
created on demand and then cached to speed up subsequent requests."""
return self._make_callback()
def reset(self):
""" Forget any cached values. The next time :attr:`call` is accessed,
all plugins are re-applied. """
self.__dict__.pop('call', None)
def prepare(self):
""" Do all on-demand work immediately (useful for debugging)."""
self.call
def all_plugins(self):
""" Yield all Plugins affecting this route. """
unique = set()
for p in reversed(self.app.plugins + self.plugins):
if True in self.skiplist: break
name = getattr(p, 'name', False)
if name and (name in self.skiplist or name in unique): continue
if p in self.skiplist or type(p) in self.skiplist: continue
if name: unique.add(name)
yield p
def _make_callback(self):
callback = self.callback
for plugin in self.all_plugins():
try:
if hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
callback = plugin.apply(callback, self)
else:
callback = plugin(callback)
except RouteReset: # Try again with changed configuration.
return self._make_callback()
if not callback is self.callback:
update_wrapper(callback, self.callback)
return callback
def get_undecorated_callback(self):
""" Return the callback. If the callback is a decorated function, try to
recover the original function. """
func = self.callback
func = getattr(func, '__func__' if py3k else 'im_func', func)
closure_attr = '__closure__' if py3k else 'func_closure'
while hasattr(func, closure_attr) and getattr(func, closure_attr):
attributes = getattr(func, closure_attr)
func = attributes[0].cell_contents
# in case of decorators with multiple arguments
if not isinstance(func, FunctionType):
# pick first FunctionType instance from multiple arguments
func = filter(lambda x: isinstance(x, FunctionType),
map(lambda x: x.cell_contents, attributes))
func = list(func)[0] # py3 support
return func
def get_callback_args(self):
""" Return a list of argument names the callback (most likely) accepts
as keyword arguments. If the callback is a decorated function, try
to recover the original function before inspection. """
return getargspec(self.get_undecorated_callback())[0]
def get_config(self, key, default=None):
""" Lookup a config field and return its value, first checking the
route.config, then route.app.config."""
depr(0, 13, "Route.get_config() is deprectated.",
"The Route.config property already includes values from the"
" application config for missing keys. Access it directly.")
return self.config.get(key, default)
def __repr__(self):
cb = self.get_undecorated_callback()
return '<%s %r %r>' % (self.method, self.rule, cb)
###############################################################################
# Application Object ###########################################################
###############################################################################
class Bottle(object):
""" Each Bottle object represents a single, distinct web application and
consists of routes, callbacks, plugins, resources and configuration.
Instances are callable WSGI applications.
:param catchall: If true (default), handle all exceptions. Turn off to
let debugging middleware handle exceptions.
"""
@lazy_attribute
def _global_config(cls):
cfg = ConfigDict()
cfg.meta_set('catchall', 'validate', bool)
return cfg
def __init__(self, **kwargs):
#: A :class:`ConfigDict` for app specific configuration.
self.config = self._global_config._make_overlay()
self.config._add_change_listener(
functools.partial(self.trigger_hook, 'config'))
self.config.update({
"catchall": True
})
if kwargs.get('catchall') is False:
depr(0, 13, "Bottle(catchall) keyword argument.",
"The 'catchall' setting is now part of the app "
"configuration. Fix: `app.config['catchall'] = False`")
self.config['catchall'] = False
if kwargs.get('autojson') is False:
depr(0, 13, "Bottle(autojson) keyword argument.",
"The 'autojson' setting is now part of the app "
"configuration. Fix: `app.config['json.enable'] = False`")
self.config['json.disable'] = True
self._mounts = []
#: A :class:`ResourceManager` for application files
self.resources = ResourceManager()
self.routes = [] # List of installed :class:`Route` instances.
self.router = Router() # Maps requests to :class:`Route` instances.
self.error_handler = {}
# Core plugins
self.plugins = [] # List of installed plugins.
self.install(JSONPlugin())
self.install(TemplatePlugin())
#: If true, most exceptions are caught and returned as :exc:`HTTPError`
catchall = DictProperty('config', 'catchall')
__hook_names = 'before_request', 'after_request', 'app_reset', 'config'
__hook_reversed = {'after_request'}
@cached_property
def _hooks(self):
return dict((name, []) for name in self.__hook_names)
def add_hook(self, name, func):
""" Attach a callback to a hook. Three hooks are currently implemented:
before_request
Executed once before each request. The request context is
available, but no routing has happened yet.
after_request
Executed once after each request regardless of its outcome.
app_reset
Called whenever :meth:`Bottle.reset` is called.
"""
if name in self.__hook_reversed:
self._hooks[name].insert(0, func)
else:
self._hooks[name].append(func)
def remove_hook(self, name, func):
""" Remove a callback from a hook. """
if name in self._hooks and func in self._hooks[name]:
self._hooks[name].remove(func)
return True
def trigger_hook(self, __name, *args, **kwargs):
""" Trigger a hook and return a list of results. """
return [hook(*args, **kwargs) for hook in self._hooks[__name][:]]
def hook(self, name):
""" Return a decorator that attaches a callback to a hook. See
:meth:`add_hook` for details."""
def decorator(func):
self.add_hook(name, func)
return func
return decorator
def _mount_wsgi(self, prefix, app, **options):
segments = [p for p in prefix.split('/') if p]
if not segments:
raise ValueError('WSGI applications cannot be mounted to "/".')
path_depth = len(segments)
def mountpoint_wrapper():
try:
request.path_shift(path_depth)
rs = HTTPResponse([])
def start_response(status, headerlist, exc_info=None):
if exc_info:
_raise(*exc_info)
if py3k:
# Errors here mean that the mounted WSGI app did not
# follow PEP-3333 (which requires latin1) or used a
# pre-encoding other than utf8 :/
status = status.encode('latin1').decode('utf8')
headerlist = [(k, v.encode('latin1').decode('utf8'))
for (k, v) in headerlist]
rs.status = status
for name, value in headerlist:
rs.add_header(name, value)
return rs.body.append
body = app(request.environ, start_response)
rs.body = itertools.chain(rs.body, body) if rs.body else body
return rs
finally:
request.path_shift(-path_depth)
options.setdefault('skip', True)
options.setdefault('method', 'PROXY')
options.setdefault('mountpoint', {'prefix': prefix, 'target': app})
options['callback'] = mountpoint_wrapper
self.route('/%s/<:re:.*>' % '/'.join(segments), **options)
if not prefix.endswith('/'):
self.route('/' + '/'.join(segments), **options)
def _mount_app(self, prefix, app, **options):
if app in self._mounts or '_mount.app' in app.config:
depr(0, 13, "Application mounted multiple times. Falling back to WSGI mount.",
"Clone application before mounting to a different location.")
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
if options:
depr(0, 13, "Unsupported mount options. Falling back to WSGI mount.",
"Do not specify any route options when mounting bottle application.")
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
if not prefix.endswith("/"):
depr(0, 13, "Prefix must end in '/'. Falling back to WSGI mount.",
"Consider adding an explicit redirect from '/prefix' to '/prefix/' in the parent application.")
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
self._mounts.append(app)
app.config['_mount.prefix'] = prefix
app.config['_mount.app'] = self
for route in app.routes:
route.rule = prefix + route.rule.lstrip('/')
self.add_route(route)
def mount(self, prefix, app, **options):
""" Mount an application (:class:`Bottle` or plain WSGI) to a specific
URL prefix. Example::
parent_app.mount('/prefix/', child_app)
:param prefix: path prefix or `mount-point`.
:param app: an instance of :class:`Bottle` or a WSGI application.
Plugins from the parent application are not applied to the routes
of the mounted child application. If you need plugins in the child
application, install them separately.
While it is possible to use path wildcards within the prefix path
(:class:`Bottle` childs only), it is highly discouraged.
The prefix path must end with a slash. If you want to access the
root of the child application via `/prefix` in addition to
`/prefix/`, consider adding a route with a 307 redirect to the
parent application.
"""
if not prefix.startswith('/'):
raise ValueError("Prefix must start with '/'")
if isinstance(app, Bottle):
return self._mount_app(prefix, app, **options)
else:
return self._mount_wsgi(prefix, app, **options)
def merge(self, routes):
""" Merge the routes of another :class:`Bottle` application or a list of
:class:`Route` objects into this application. The routes keep their
'owner', meaning that the :data:`Route.app` attribute is not
changed. """
if isinstance(routes, Bottle):
routes = routes.routes
for route in routes:
self.add_route(route)
def install(self, plugin):
""" Add a plugin to the list of plugins and prepare it for being
applied to all routes of this application. A plugin may be a simple
decorator or an object that implements the :class:`Plugin` API.
"""
if hasattr(plugin, 'setup'): plugin.setup(self)
if not callable(plugin) and not hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
raise TypeError("Plugins must be callable or implement .apply()")
self.plugins.append(plugin)
self.reset()
return plugin
def uninstall(self, plugin):
""" Uninstall plugins. Pass an instance to remove a specific plugin, a type
object to remove all plugins that match that type, a string to remove
all plugins with a matching ``name`` attribute or ``True`` to remove all
plugins. Return the list of removed plugins. """
removed, remove = [], plugin
for i, plugin in list(enumerate(self.plugins))[::-1]:
if remove is True or remove is plugin or remove is type(plugin) \
or getattr(plugin, 'name', True) == remove:
removed.append(plugin)
del self.plugins[i]
if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
if removed: self.reset()
return removed
def reset(self, route=None):
""" Reset all routes (force plugins to be re-applied) and clear all
caches. If an ID or route object is given, only that specific route
is affected. """
if route is None: routes = self.routes
elif isinstance(route, Route): routes = [route]
else: routes = [self.routes[route]]
for route in routes:
route.reset()
if DEBUG:
for route in routes:
route.prepare()
self.trigger_hook('app_reset')
def close(self):
""" Close the application and all installed plugins. """
for plugin in self.plugins:
if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
def run(self, **kwargs):
""" Calls :func:`run` with the same parameters. """
run(self, **kwargs)
def match(self, environ):
""" Search for a matching route and return a (:class:`Route`, urlargs)
tuple. The second value is a dictionary with parameters extracted
from the URL. Raise :exc:`HTTPError` (404/405) on a non-match."""
return self.router.match(environ)
def get_url(self, routename, **kargs):
""" Return a string that matches a named route """
scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/') + '/'
location = self.router.build(routename, **kargs).lstrip('/')
return urljoin(urljoin('/', scriptname), location)
def add_route(self, route):
""" Add a route object, but do not change the :data:`Route.app`
attribute."""
self.routes.append(route)
self.router.add(route.rule, route.method, route, name=route.name)
if DEBUG: route.prepare()
def route(self,
path=None,
method='GET',
callback=None,
name=None,
apply=None,
skip=None, **config):
""" A decorator to bind a function to a request URL. Example::
@app.route('/hello/<name>')
def hello(name):
return 'Hello %s' % name
The ``<name>`` part is a wildcard. See :class:`Router` for syntax
details.
:param path: Request path or a list of paths to listen to. If no
path is specified, it is automatically generated from the
signature of the function.
:param method: HTTP method (`GET`, `POST`, `PUT`, ...) or a list of
methods to listen to. (default: `GET`)
:param callback: An optional shortcut to avoid the decorator
syntax. ``route(..., callback=func)`` equals ``route(...)(func)``
:param name: The name for this route. (default: None)
:param apply: A decorator or plugin or a list of plugins. These are
applied to the route callback in addition to installed plugins.
:param skip: A list of plugins, plugin classes or names. Matching
plugins are not installed to this route. ``True`` skips all.
Any additional keyword arguments are stored as route-specific
configuration and passed to plugins (see :meth:`Plugin.apply`).
"""
if callable(path): path, callback = None, path
plugins = makelist(apply)
skiplist = makelist(skip)
def decorator(callback):
if isinstance(callback, basestring): callback = load(callback)
for rule in makelist(path) or yieldroutes(callback):
for verb in makelist(method):
verb = verb.upper()
route = Route(self, rule, verb, callback,
name=name,
plugins=plugins,
skiplist=skiplist, **config)
self.add_route(route)
return callback
return decorator(callback) if callback else decorator
def get(self, path=None, method='GET', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route`. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def post(self, path=None, method='POST', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``POST`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def put(self, path=None, method='PUT', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``PUT`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def delete(self, path=None, method='DELETE', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``DELETE`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def patch(self, path=None, method='PATCH', **options):
""" Equals :meth:`route` with a ``PATCH`` method parameter. """
return self.route(path, method, **options)
def error(self, code=500, callback=None):
""" Register an output handler for a HTTP error code. Can
be used as a decorator or called directly ::
def error_handler_500(error):
return 'error_handler_500'
app.error(code=500, callback=error_handler_500)
@app.error(404)
def error_handler_404(error):
return 'error_handler_404'
"""
def decorator(callback):
if isinstance(callback, basestring): callback = load(callback)
self.error_handler[int(code)] = callback
return callback
return decorator(callback) if callback else decorator
def default_error_handler(self, res):
return tob(template(ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE, e=res, template_settings=dict(name='__ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE')))
def _handle(self, environ):
path = environ['bottle.raw_path'] = environ['PATH_INFO']
if py3k:
environ['PATH_INFO'] = path.encode('latin1').decode('utf8', 'ignore')
environ['bottle.app'] = self
request.bind(environ)
response.bind()
try:
while True: # Remove in 0.14 together with RouteReset
out = None
try:
self.trigger_hook('before_request')
route, args = self.router.match(environ)
environ['route.handle'] = route
environ['bottle.route'] = route
environ['route.url_args'] = args
out = route.call(**args)
break
except HTTPResponse as E:
out = E
break
except RouteReset:
depr(0, 13, "RouteReset exception deprecated",
"Call route.call() after route.reset() and "
"return the result.")
route.reset()
continue
finally:
if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
out.apply(response)
try:
self.trigger_hook('after_request')
except HTTPResponse as E:
out = E
out.apply(response)
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
raise
except Exception as E:
if not self.catchall: raise
stacktrace = format_exc()
environ['wsgi.errors'].write(stacktrace)
environ['wsgi.errors'].flush()
out = HTTPError(500, "Internal Server Error", E, stacktrace)
out.apply(response)
return out
def _cast(self, out, peek=None):
""" Try to convert the parameter into something WSGI compatible and set
correct HTTP headers when possible.
Support: False, str, unicode, dict, HTTPResponse, HTTPError, file-like,
iterable of strings and iterable of unicodes
"""
# Empty output is done here
if not out:
if 'Content-Length' not in response:
response['Content-Length'] = 0
return []
# Join lists of byte or unicode strings. Mixed lists are NOT supported
if isinstance(out, (tuple, list))\
and isinstance(out[0], (bytes, unicode)):
out = out[0][0:0].join(out) # b'abc'[0:0] -> b''
# Encode unicode strings
if isinstance(out, unicode):
out = out.encode(response.charset)
# Byte Strings are just returned
if isinstance(out, bytes):
if 'Content-Length' not in response:
response['Content-Length'] = len(out)
return [out]
# HTTPError or HTTPException (recursive, because they may wrap anything)
# TODO: Handle these explicitly in handle() or make them iterable.
if isinstance(out, HTTPError):
out.apply(response)
out = self.error_handler.get(out.status_code,
self.default_error_handler)(out)
return self._cast(out)
if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
out.apply(response)
return self._cast(out.body)
# File-like objects.
if hasattr(out, 'read'):
if 'wsgi.file_wrapper' in request.environ:
return request.environ['wsgi.file_wrapper'](out)
elif hasattr(out, 'close') or not hasattr(out, '__iter__'):
return WSGIFileWrapper(out)
# Handle Iterables. We peek into them to detect their inner type.
try:
iout = iter(out)
first = next(iout)
while not first:
first = next(iout)
except StopIteration:
return self._cast('')
except HTTPResponse as E:
first = E
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
raise
except Exception as error:
if not self.catchall: raise
first = HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', error, format_exc())
# These are the inner types allowed in iterator or generator objects.
if isinstance(first, HTTPResponse):
return self._cast(first)
elif isinstance(first, bytes):
new_iter = itertools.chain([first], iout)
elif isinstance(first, unicode):
encoder = lambda x: x.encode(response.charset)
new_iter = imap(encoder, itertools.chain([first], iout))
else:
msg = 'Unsupported response type: %s' % type(first)
return self._cast(HTTPError(500, msg))
if hasattr(out, 'close'):
new_iter = _closeiter(new_iter, out.close)
return new_iter
def wsgi(self, environ, start_response):
""" The bottle WSGI-interface. """
try:
out = self._cast(self._handle(environ))
# rfc2616 section 4.3
if response._status_code in (100, 101, 204, 304)\
or environ['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'HEAD':
if hasattr(out, 'close'): out.close()
out = []
start_response(response._wsgi_status_line(), response.headerlist)
return out
except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
raise
except Exception as E:
if not self.catchall: raise
err = '<h1>Critical error while processing request: %s</h1>' \
% html_escape(environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/'))
if DEBUG:
err += '<h2>Error:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \
'<h2>Traceback:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \
% (html_escape(repr(E)), html_escape(format_exc()))
environ['wsgi.errors'].write(err)
environ['wsgi.errors'].flush()
headers = [('Content-Type', 'text/html; charset=UTF-8')]
start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', headers, sys.exc_info())
return [tob(err)]
def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
""" Each instance of :class:'Bottle' is a WSGI application. """
return self.wsgi(environ, start_response)
def __enter__(self):
""" Use this application as default for all module-level shortcuts. """
default_app.push(self)
return self
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
default_app.pop()
def __setattr__(self, name, value):
if name in self.__dict__:
raise AttributeError("Attribute %s already defined. Plugin conflict?" % name)
self.__dict__[name] = value
###############################################################################
# HTTP and WSGI Tools ##########################################################
###############################################################################
class BaseRequest(object):
""" A wrapper for WSGI environment dictionaries that adds a lot of
convenient access methods and properties. Most of them are read-only.
Adding new attributes to a request actually adds them to the environ
dictionary (as 'bottle.request.ext.<name>'). This is the recommended
way to store and access request-specific data.
"""
__slots__ = ('environ', )
#: Maximum size of memory buffer for :attr:`body` in bytes.
MEMFILE_MAX = 102400
def __init__(self, environ=None):
""" Wrap a WSGI environ dictionary. """
#: The wrapped WSGI environ dictionary. This is the only real attribute.
#: All other attributes actually are read-only properties.
self.environ = {} if environ is None else environ
self.environ['bottle.request'] = self
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.app', read_only=True)
def app(self):
""" Bottle application handling this request. """
raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to an application.')
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.route', read_only=True)
def route(self):
""" The bottle :class:`Route` object that matches this request. """
raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to a route.')
@DictProperty('environ', 'route.url_args', read_only=True)
def url_args(self):
""" The arguments extracted from the URL. """
raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to a route.')
@property
def path(self):
""" The value of ``PATH_INFO`` with exactly one prefixed slash (to fix
broken clients and avoid the "empty path" edge case). """
return '/' + self.environ.get('PATH_INFO', '').lstrip('/')
@property
def method(self):
""" The ``REQUEST_METHOD`` value as an uppercase string. """
return self.environ.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET').upper()
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.headers', read_only=True)
def headers(self):
""" A :class:`WSGIHeaderDict` that provides case-insensitive access to
HTTP request headers. """
return WSGIHeaderDict(self.environ)
def get_header(self, name, default=None):
""" Return the value of a request header, or a given default value. """
return self.headers.get(name, default)
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.cookies', read_only=True)
def cookies(self):
""" Cookies parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. Signed cookies are NOT
decoded. Use :meth:`get_cookie` if you expect signed cookies. """
cookies = SimpleCookie(self.environ.get('HTTP_COOKIE', '')).values()
return FormsDict((c.key, c.value) for c in cookies)
def get_cookie(self, key, default=None, secret=None, digestmod=hashlib.sha256):
""" Return the content of a cookie. To read a `Signed Cookie`, the
`secret` must match the one used to create the cookie (see
:meth:`BaseResponse.set_cookie`). If anything goes wrong (missing
cookie or wrong signature), return a default value. """
value = self.cookies.get(key)
if secret:
# See BaseResponse.set_cookie for details on signed cookies.
if value and value.startswith('!') and '?' in value:
sig, msg = map(tob, value[1:].split('?', 1))
hash = hmac.new(tob(secret), msg, digestmod=digestmod).digest()
if _lscmp(sig, base64.b64encode(hash)):
dst = pickle.loads(base64.b64decode(msg))
if dst and dst[0] == key:
return dst[1]
return default
return value or default
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.query', read_only=True)
def query(self):
""" The :attr:`query_string` parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. These
values are sometimes called "URL arguments" or "GET parameters", but
not to be confused with "URL wildcards" as they are provided by the
:class:`Router`. """
get = self.environ['bottle.get'] = FormsDict()
pairs = _parse_qsl(self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', ''))
for key, value in pairs:
get[key] = value
return get
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.forms', read_only=True)
def forms(self):
""" Form values parsed from an `url-encoded` or `multipart/form-data`
encoded POST or PUT request body. The result is returned as a
:class:`FormsDict`. All keys and values are strings. File uploads
are stored separately in :attr:`files`. """
forms = FormsDict()
forms.recode_unicode = self.POST.recode_unicode
for name, item in self.POST.allitems():
if not isinstance(item, FileUpload):
forms[name] = item
return forms
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.params', read_only=True)
def params(self):
""" A :class:`FormsDict` with the combined values of :attr:`query` and
:attr:`forms`. File uploads are stored in :attr:`files`. """
params = FormsDict()
for key, value in self.query.allitems():
params[key] = value
for key, value in self.forms.allitems():
params[key] = value
return params
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.files', read_only=True)
def files(self):
""" File uploads parsed from `multipart/form-data` encoded POST or PUT
request body. The values are instances of :class:`FileUpload`.
"""
files = FormsDict()
files.recode_unicode = self.POST.recode_unicode
for name, item in self.POST.allitems():
if isinstance(item, FileUpload):
files[name] = item
return files
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.json', read_only=True)
def json(self):
""" If the ``Content-Type`` header is ``application/json`` or
``application/json-rpc``, this property holds the parsed content
of the request body. Only requests smaller than :attr:`MEMFILE_MAX`
are processed to avoid memory exhaustion.
Invalid JSON raises a 400 error response.
"""
ctype = self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower().split(';')[0]
if ctype in ('application/json', 'application/json-rpc'):
b = self._get_body_string(self.MEMFILE_MAX)
if not b:
return None
try:
return json_loads(b)
except (ValueError, TypeError):
raise HTTPError(400, 'Invalid JSON')
return None
def _iter_body(self, read, bufsize):
maxread = max(0, self.content_length)
while maxread:
part = read(min(maxread, bufsize))
if not part: break
yield part
maxread -= len(part)
@staticmethod
def _iter_chunked(read, bufsize):
err = HTTPError(400, 'Error while parsing chunked transfer body.')
rn, sem, bs = tob('\r\n'), tob(';'), tob('')
while True:
header = read(1)
while header[-2:] != rn:
c = read(1)
header += c
if not c: raise err
if len(header) > bufsize: raise err
size, _, _ = header.partition(sem)
try:
maxread = int(tonat(size.strip()), 16)
except ValueError:
raise err
if maxread == 0: break
buff = bs
while maxread > 0:
if not buff:
buff = read(min(maxread, bufsize))
part, buff = buff[:maxread], buff[maxread:]
if not part: raise err
yield part
maxread -= len(part)
if read(2) != rn:
raise err
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.body', read_only=True)
def _body(self):
try:
read_func = self.environ['wsgi.input'].read
except KeyError:
self.environ['wsgi.input'] = BytesIO()
return self.environ['wsgi.input']
body_iter = self._iter_chunked if self.chunked else self._iter_body
body, body_size, is_temp_file = BytesIO(), 0, False
for part in body_iter(read_func, self.MEMFILE_MAX):
body.write(part)
body_size += len(part)
if not is_temp_file and body_size > self.MEMFILE_MAX:
body, tmp = TemporaryFile(mode='w+b'), body
body.write(tmp.getvalue())
del tmp
is_temp_file = True
self.environ['wsgi.input'] = body
body.seek(0)
return body
def _get_body_string(self, maxread):
""" Read body into a string. Raise HTTPError(413) on requests that are
to large. """
if self.content_length > maxread:
raise HTTPError(413, 'Request entity too large')
data = self.body.read(maxread + 1)
if len(data) > maxread:
raise HTTPError(413, 'Request entity too large')
return data
@property
def body(self):
""" The HTTP request body as a seek-able file-like object. Depending on
:attr:`MEMFILE_MAX`, this is either a temporary file or a
:class:`io.BytesIO` instance. Accessing this property for the first
time reads and replaces the ``wsgi.input`` environ variable.
Subsequent accesses just do a `seek(0)` on the file object. """
self._body.seek(0)
return self._body
@property
def chunked(self):
""" True if Chunked transfer encoding was. """
return 'chunked' in self.environ.get(
'HTTP_TRANSFER_ENCODING', '').lower()
#: An alias for :attr:`query`.
GET = query
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.post', read_only=True)
def POST(self):
""" The values of :attr:`forms` and :attr:`files` combined into a single
:class:`FormsDict`. Values are either strings (form values) or
instances of :class:`cgi.FieldStorage` (file uploads).
"""
post = FormsDict()
# We default to application/x-www-form-urlencoded for everything that
# is not multipart and take the fast path (also: 3.1 workaround)
if not self.content_type.startswith('multipart/'):
body = tonat(self._get_body_string(self.MEMFILE_MAX), 'latin1')
for key, value in _parse_qsl(body):
post[key] = value
return post
safe_env = {'QUERY_STRING': ''} # Build a safe environment for cgi
for key in ('REQUEST_METHOD', 'CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH'):
if key in self.environ: safe_env[key] = self.environ[key]
args = dict(fp=self.body, environ=safe_env, keep_blank_values=True)
if py3k:
args['encoding'] = 'utf8'
post.recode_unicode = False
data = cgi.FieldStorage(**args)
self['_cgi.FieldStorage'] = data #http://bugs.python.org/issue18394
data = data.list or []
for item in data:
if item.filename:
post[item.name] = FileUpload(item.file, item.name,
item.filename, item.headers)
else:
post[item.name] = item.value
return post
@property
def url(self):
""" The full request URI including hostname and scheme. If your app
lives behind a reverse proxy or load balancer and you get confusing
results, make sure that the ``X-Forwarded-Host`` header is set
correctly. """
return self.urlparts.geturl()
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.urlparts', read_only=True)
def urlparts(self):
""" The :attr:`url` string as an :class:`urlparse.SplitResult` tuple.
The tuple contains (scheme, host, path, query_string and fragment),
but the fragment is always empty because it is not visible to the
server. """
env = self.environ
http = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO') \
or env.get('wsgi.url_scheme', 'http')
host = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_HOST') or env.get('HTTP_HOST')
if not host:
# HTTP 1.1 requires a Host-header. This is for HTTP/1.0 clients.
host = env.get('SERVER_NAME', '127.0.0.1')
port = env.get('SERVER_PORT')
if port and port != ('80' if http == 'http' else '443'):
host += ':' + port
path = urlquote(self.fullpath)
return UrlSplitResult(http, host, path, env.get('QUERY_STRING'), '')
@property
def fullpath(self):
""" Request path including :attr:`script_name` (if present). """
return urljoin(self.script_name, self.path.lstrip('/'))
@property
def query_string(self):
""" The raw :attr:`query` part of the URL (everything in between ``?``
and ``#``) as a string. """
return self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
@property
def script_name(self):
""" The initial portion of the URL's `path` that was removed by a higher
level (server or routing middleware) before the application was
called. This script path is returned with leading and tailing
slashes. """
script_name = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/')
return '/' + script_name + '/' if script_name else '/'
def path_shift(self, shift=1):
""" Shift path segments from :attr:`path` to :attr:`script_name` and
vice versa.
:param shift: The number of path segments to shift. May be negative
to change the shift direction. (default: 1)
"""
script, path = path_shift(self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '/'), self.path, shift)
self['SCRIPT_NAME'], self['PATH_INFO'] = script, path
@property
def content_length(self):
""" The request body length as an integer. The client is responsible to
set this header. Otherwise, the real length of the body is unknown
and -1 is returned. In this case, :attr:`body` will be empty. """
return int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH') or -1)
@property
def content_type(self):
""" The Content-Type header as a lowercase-string (default: empty). """
return self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower()
@property
def is_xhr(self):
""" True if the request was triggered by a XMLHttpRequest. This only
works with JavaScript libraries that support the `X-Requested-With`
header (most of the popular libraries do). """
requested_with = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH', '')
return requested_with.lower() == 'xmlhttprequest'
@property
def is_ajax(self):
""" Alias for :attr:`is_xhr`. "Ajax" is not the right term. """
return self.is_xhr
@property
def auth(self):
""" HTTP authentication data as a (user, password) tuple. This
implementation currently supports basic (not digest) authentication
only. If the authentication happened at a higher level (e.g. in the
front web-server or a middleware), the password field is None, but
the user field is looked up from the ``REMOTE_USER`` environ
variable. On any errors, None is returned. """
basic = parse_auth(self.environ.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION', ''))
if basic: return basic
ruser = self.environ.get('REMOTE_USER')
if ruser: return (ruser, None)
return None
@property
def remote_route(self):
""" A list of all IPs that were involved in this request, starting with
the client IP and followed by zero or more proxies. This does only
work if all proxies support the ```X-Forwarded-For`` header. Note
that this information can be forged by malicious clients. """